A bunion is a foot deformity that changes the shape of the foot causing the big toe to turn inward towards the second toe, leading to pain and inflammation. A bunion is caused by incorrect footwear, joint damage, arthritis, and genetic disposition. Some of the commonly observed symptoms are pain, inflammation, and a bony bump on the side of the foot.
A bunion may be corrected with conservative treatment or surgery. If the conservative treatment does not treat the bunion pain, then your surgeon may recommend surgical removal of the bunion (bunionectomy). The main goal of the surgery is to remove painful deformities, restore normal bone alignment, and prevent recurrence.
Bunion surgery involves removing the inflamed bony tissue around the big toe joint using a shaving drill. A part of the bone in the big toe is cut to straighten the toe (osteotomy). Ligaments are tightened and adjusted in a proper direction. Screws and pins are used to fuse the bones together. After the surgery, your surgeon may instruct you to use crutches to prevent weight-bearing. Some of the complications of bunion surgery include infection, stiffness of the toe, loss of blood supply to the toe, and over-correction. Over-correction leads to turning of the big toe outward (hallux varus). However, these complications can be corrected.